Telephonic Supplychains Digitization


The materials for this project largely consist of pamphlets, trade journals, and other long-form publications. To that end, the goal of digitization is to create archival presentations that mimic these forms. Because of the time period in question, and the publication nature of the documents, the materiality of the documents themselves is a lesser consideration in the digitization process. Each document will be scanned at 300DPI in millions of colors. At this point minor adjustments to compensate for scanning errors (rotation, cropping of white space, etc.) that do not substantitvely alter content will be made and the document will be assembled into a pdf as part of a pdf creation workflow. From here the document will be OCRed for its textual content, and the result will be embedded in the document. This OCRed text will be spot corrected for recognized OCR suspects, but otherwise untouched. An additional record will be created from the OCR text, revised through proofing and manual transcription, that will serve as the actual searchable text record for the document.

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Transcript Content for Page 34

Tin In Your Telephone
Tin has two chief uses in Industry. It is a part of the solder used to join metals and, as a covering on sheet iron and steel, it forms the so-called tin used for roofing, making tin cans and pails for paints and food, and lends itself to a thousand and one other articles. To carry the soil containing grains of tin up from the mine it is dumped into the water that gathers in the low parts of the mine. Then pumping the water to the surface brings the tin up, too. Below-These riffles for gathering tin from the travel are long chutes with cleats across the bottom. As the water carrying the gravel and grains of tin flows along, the heavier tin sinks, is caught against the cleats and is recovered later while the other material and water flow away. Down in a tin mine on the Malay Peninsula. After the tin has been separated from the gravel it is put in bags to go to the smelters from which it comes out as the tin of commerce. [ 34 ]

Transcript Content for Page 35

Tin In Your Telephone
Napoleon is remembered today as a great general who led victorious armies through Europe until he met the combined British and Prussian troops at Waterloo and went down in defeat. But Napoleon did other things besides lead an army. At one time he offered a prize to any man who could discover some means of keeping foods fresh for an indefinite length of time. About 1809 or 1810 one Nicholas Appert won the prize of 12,000 francs for discovering a way to can foods and the canning business he started is still run in Paris by the Appert family. Appert, however, was just one year ahead of Peter Durand, an Englishman, who was the first to preserve food in tin "canisters," Appert having used glass for his first containers. In the United States today where 5,000,000,000 cans of food are eaten every year, nearly 40% of all the tin used goes into tin plate for making tin cans. Tin has been used almost as long as any other metal. Copper was probably the first to be used and was followed by bronze, an alloy of copper and tin, the first use of which was for arms and armor. Later it was made into cannon-and bronze cannon were common up to a few decades ago. Besides the use of tin for cans, which, by the way, are made from sheets of steel coated Solder joins the wires in lead covered cables and also joins the lead sheaths where two cables come together, thus preventing moisture from creeping in to injure the insulation. on both sides with tin, the metal is used in making solder, tin foil, collapsible tubes for tooth paste, vaseline, shaving cream and similar articles, and to give weight to silk and make it rustle. The oldest tin mines of which history tells us are in Cornwall, England. Long before Caesar's time vessels from Carthage took the long journey to what they called the Tin Islands. There is a story that one of these Carthagenian traders seeing that he was being followed by a rival from another nation, wrecked his own boat to keep the rival nation from learning his secret. The story ends happily, for the patriotic trader was not drowned and upon his return to Carthage was rewarded for keeping the trade secret. In those days the tin veins at Cornwall must have been near the surface but through the ages they have been worked to a depth of 3300 feet and now the workings are down under the sea so that the miners can hear the Atlantic pounding on the shore above their heads. These mines, which in times past were the only ones extensively worked, are now able to furnish only a small part of the world's tin supply. The United States, which uses more tin than any other country, has to import most of its supply. The Malay Peninsula and Condensers used in telephone circuits are made by stacking alternate sheets of foil, made frorn tin and antimony, and paraffin paper or by rolling alternate strips of foil and paraffin paper. The finished condensers are enclosed in metal cases. (ln. some condensers mica is used in place of paraffin paper.) Banka, a small island across the Strait in the Dutch East Indies, now provide most of the tin. This tin finds its way to United States, England, Germany and France, as does that from Bolivia, a country which ranks second in tin production. Tin is used in solder in your telephone and throughout telephone systems wherever wires are to be spliced, as in the case of cables or open wires strung on poles; in telephone switch-boards to fasten wires permanently to connectors, relays and coils; and in the terminal rooms of central offices where thousands of wires coming from the switchboard are soldered to connectors from which wires go to homes, offices and factories. Tin is also used to coat some iron parts to keep them from rusting and is used instead of antimony in the lead sheaths of cables made for special purposes. For ordinary cable use, antimony gives the proper hardening to the lead sheath and is, moreover, less expensive. Tin is also used in condensers in the form of foil. Tin is a part of the solder which makes firm good current carrying connections between many of the small parts in your telephone. [ 35 ]

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